Clinical significance of acinetobacter species isolated from the university teaching hospital, Lusaka.
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Acinetobacter species have emerged as important pathogens globally responsible for various infections and are among the leading causes of hospital-acquired infections (HAI). Acinetobacter species has in the recent past been the causative agent of several infections such as sepsis, Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP), soft tissue infections (wound and infections), and Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) and meningitis. In this study, 60 Acinetobacter species were isolated, of which forty (40) were clinical specimens from patients with various conditions and 20 were environmental isolates. The environmental specimens were from surfaces and equipment in contact with the patients, such as beds, beddings, suction machines, ventilators, ward gowns and endotracheal tubes. The environmental sources contributed a significant proportion of Acinetobacter species isolated at 33.3% (at 95% CI: 21.1-45.6). The clinical isolates had a total of 40 isolates (66.7%). Among them, the admission ward showed the highest number of Acinetobacter species isolated (n=13), followed by the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) (n=12), and the least number was from the Main Intensive Care Unit (MICU) (n=1). From both the environmental and clinical isolates, the most frequently isolated species was Acinetobacter baumannii (n=43), with the least being A. ursingii (n=1). The Acinetobacter spp. had 50% (20) isolation in sepsis and 15% (6) meningitis. The resistance gene AdeB (efflux pump) was detected in 82.5% of the clinical isolates, and resistance to amikacin was observed at 1.6%. The isolates resistant to imipenem were observed at 17%., whilst the Oxa48 for carbapenem resistance was not detected in both the clinical and the environmental isolates. The study also showed that the isolates detected from the environmental isolates were also isolated from the clinical isolates.
The University of Zambia
- Veterinary Medicine